Biometric authentication is a type 3 factor invariably draws upon some behavioral or physiological aspect unique to individual subjects. Fingerprints, facial identification, palm vein authentication, hand geometry, keystroke analysis, palm topography, retinal or iris scans, signature dynamics and voice recognition are all recognized Type 3 factors. All of them proffer unique properties that depend on certain physical characteristics of the individuals who supply them for authentication.

Defining a Biometric device as being successful, reliable and secured depends on many issues, yet most importantly are the False Negative and False positive authentication results. Many systems utilize sensitivity adjustment controls to fine-tune these results.

Whilst biometric systems allow for ease of use, many systems fail by denying authentication of valid users or by accepting authentication from invalid users. The ratio of inappropriate rejections to valid authentications is known as the False Rejection Rate (FRR) and the ratio of erroneous authentications to valid authentications is the False Acceptance Rate (FAR).

For the various Type 3 authentication factors mentioned in the preceding paragraph those that are most popular seek to minimize FRR and FAR. The most widely used Type 3 factors today include Finger Print, Palm Vein pattern recognition, iris scans, and palm topography, Where Facial Recognition is now growing in acceptance due to unique security needs in airports, stadiums, border controls, banks, Casino’s and even malls.

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